The Republic of Lithuania restored its independence in 1990 March 11th, after 50 years of Soviet and Nazi occupations. The constitution guarantees equality before the law for all citizens regardless of their race, religion, sex, ethnicity, social status or political opinions. Lithuania officially has no state religion.
The political system of the Republic of Lithuania is a semi-presidential democracy, where there is a clear separation of powers between the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government.
The Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania is a unicameral parliament and the supreme legislative power in Lithuania. It consists of 141 members elected for 4 year terms in direct elections in secret ballots. The voting threshold for a party to enter parliament is 5%. Half of Seimas members are elected in a proportional voting system, where citizens vote for party lists, and the other half consists of members elected directly in electoral districts.
The Government of the Republic of Lithuania consists of 14 ministers and the Prime minister, who are appointed by the President of the Republic of Lithuania and selected by the political parties that have formed a ruling coalition. It is the country’s main executive power, responsible for the main affairs of the country, carrying out law and maintains homeland security.
The President of the Republic of Lithuania is officially the head of state and supreme commander of Lithuania’s armed forces. It is elected directly for a 5-year term and cannot serve more than 2 terms consecutively. The President is under Lithuania’s Constitution the main official responsible foreign and defence policy.
The Speaker of Seimas is officially the second person in Lithuania after the President. It is elected by the Parliament and is solely responsible only to it. The speaker presides over the work of Seimas.
The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania is an independent court responsible for judicial review of Seimas and the Government’s legal acts, conformity of them and international treaties with the Constitution and other constitutional issues. The judges are selected for a single nine-year term by the Seimas for the candidates presented by the President, Seimas and the Supreme judge. Each of them presents three judges.
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