Political system

The political system of the Republic of Poland is defined by the Constitution of 2nd April 1997.

The Constitution states that the Republic of Poland is a democratic state ruled by law, implementing the rules of social justice, safeguarding the independence and integrity of its territory, ensuring the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens and the security of the citizens, safeguarding the national heritage and ensuring the protection of the natural environment in line with the principle of sustainable development.

The Constitution ensures that there is freedom of the press and of other means of social communication, as well as freedom of belief, religion and philosophy, and it protects marriage, understood as the union of a man and a woman, the family, motherhood and parenthood.

A social market economy, based on freedom of economic activity, private ownership and solidarity, dialogue and cooperation between social partners, is the basis of the economic system of the Republic of Poland.

The system of government of the Republic of Poland is based on the principle that there is separation and balance between legislative, executive and judicial powers.

Executive power is exercised by the President and the government, which consists of a council of ministers led by the Prime Minister. Its members are typically chosen from a majority coalition in the lower house of parliament (the Sejm), although exceptions to this rule are not uncommon. The government is formally announced by the president, and must pass a motion of confidence in the Sejm within two weeks.

The president, as the head of state, is the supreme commander of the Armed Forces and has the power to veto legislation passed by parliament, but otherwise has a mostly representative role. Presidential elections occur every 5 years.

Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of parliament, Sejm and Senate. Members of Sejm are elected by proportional representation, with the proviso that non-ethnic-minority parties must gain at least 5% of the national vote to enter the lower house. Currently four parties are represented. Parliamentary elections occur at least every four years.

The judicial branch plays a minor role in politics, apart from the Constitutional Tribunal, which can annul laws that violate the freedoms guaranteed in the constitution.


Platforma Obywatelska

Civic Platform was founded in 2001, by conservative and liberal Polish politicians. The most notable leaders were: Donald Tusk (current...

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Prawo i Sprawiedliwość

Law and Justice was founded by the Kaczyński twin brothers: Lech and Jarosław. A large part of the party’s most...

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Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej

SLD is a post-communist, social-democratic party formed from the remains of the Polish communist party PZPR (Polish United Workers’ Party)....

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Twój Ruch

Formerly known as “Ruch Palikota” (Palikot’s Movement), the party was founded by a businessman and former Civic Platform’s MP, Janusz...

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Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe

PSL has the longest traditions as a Polish political party. Its predecessor was formed before the WW II and some...

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Kongres Nowej Prawicy

KNP is the conservative free-market (/libertarian) party founded by Janusz Korwin-Mikke. He has been recently elected a member of the...

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Polska Razem

The party was formed by conservative ex-PO member, Jarosław Gowin. Gowin is a former minister of justice (2011-2013),  senator and...

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Solidarna Polska

The Party was founded by former Law and Justice’s MEPs, Zbigniew Ziobro, Jacek Kurski and Tadeusz Cymański. United Poland wanted...

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Latest polls

22.3% PO
28.5% PiS
10.4% SLD
4.4% PSL
3.4% Twój Ruch

Macroeconomic data


Gazeta Wyborcza

One of the biggest and most important daily newspaper in Poland. Historically connected with Solidarity movement  it was founded by...

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One of the main Polish daily newspaper. Before 1989 it was the government newspaper but after the democratic reforms it...

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One of the most widely-read weekly newspaper in Poland and the only one which fully belongs to the journalists. POLITYKA's...

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The conservativ-liberal weekly newspaper founded by former journalist of the newspaper Uważam RZE. Full name: Tygodnik DO RZECZY Abbreviation: DO...

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Full name: Tygodnik wSieci Abbreviation: wSieci Founded: 2012 Owners/shareholders: Fratria Sp. z o. o. Media type: newspaper Ideological profile: Conservative...

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Key companies


Polskie Górnictwo Naftowe i Gazownictwo is a Polish state-controlled oiland natural gas company, which deals with the exploration and production...

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PKN Orlen

PKN Orlen is a major Polish oil refiner, and petrol retailer. The company is a significant European publicly traded firm...

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KGHM is one of the biggest copper and silver global producers.   Full name: KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. Abbreviation: KGHM...

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Grupa Lotos

Grupa Lotos S.A. is a vertically integrated oil company based in Gdańsk, Poland. Its main activity branches are: crude oil...

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Jeronimo Martins

Jeronimo Martins SGPS, SA (JM) is a Portuguese corporate group that operates in food distribution and consumer products manufacturing. It...

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Polska Grupa Energetyczna

Polska Grupa Energetyczna (PGE SA or PGE Group, the name can be translated as Polish Energy Group) is a state-owned...

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PZU Group (PZU) is a leader on the insurance market and one of the largest financial institutions in Poland. It...

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Metro Group AG

Metro AG, otherwise known as Metro Group, is a German global diversified retail and wholesale/cash and carry group based in...

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  1. Jan Kulczyk (13 100 mln PLN) – Poland´s richest man. He is the founder and owner of Kulczyk Holding (headquartered in Warsaw) and international investment house Kulczyk Investments with headquarters in Luxembourg and offices in London, Kiev and Dubai. According to Forbes magazine. In 2013 he was ranked 384 on The World’s Billionaire list by Forbes moving up in the rank due to his continuously diversified portfolio of investment, notably in Africa where Kulczyk Investments holds a 40% stake in Neconde Energy Limited, a consortium which acquired an oil production license in Nigeria.
  1. Zygmunt Solorz-Żak (12 000 mln PLN) – Polish businessman. He is the second richest person in Poland. Solorz-Żak launched the free-to-air commercial TV channel Polsat in 1992, broadcast through satellite, and obtained a national commercial television license in 1993. Since the middle of the 1990s, Polsat has remained one of the Poland’s biggest television stations. Apart from TV Polsat, Solorz-Żak’s key assets include pay TV platform Cyfrowy Polsat. He holds controlling stakes in pension fund PTE Polsat, small life insurer Polisa and retail bank Invest Bank. After winning control over the distressed Elektrim conglomerate, Solorz-Żak obtained operating control over lignite power plant PAK, ranked among the three largest electricity producers in Poland. He has owned the Śląsk Wrocław football club since 2008 and the Polish mobile phone company Polkomtel since 2011.
  1. Michał Sołowow (6 960 mln PLN) – Polish businessman and rally driver, one of the biggest Polish stock exchange investors. He is an important shareholder of the following companies: Synthos (chemical industry), Cersanit (sanitary ceramics and tiles), Echo Investment (development activity), and Barlinek (producer of floorboards).
  2. Leszek Czarnecki (6 330 mln PLN) – Polish businessman. He is the fourth richest person In Poland. His main business activity is banking. He is based in Wrocław, is an engineer by education and a doctor of economics. The main shareholder of:
  • Banks (Getin Noble Bank, Idea Bank (Ukraine), Idea Bank (Belarus) Romanian International Bank, Belarusian Bank of Small Business)
  • Insurance (Open Life)
  • Leasing (Idea Leasing, Getin Leasing, Carcade(Russia))
  • Financial brokerage (Open Finance, Home Broker, Tax Care, Idea Expert)
  • Real estate (LC Corp)
  • Other companies (TAN, Noble Funds, Noble Securities, MW Trade, getBACK)
  1. Grzegorz Jankilewicz (4 500 mln PLN) – Businessman from Ukraine, He is In Poland since 1992. Musician, shareholder of Mercuria Energy Group (intermediary in the sale of oil for Orlen and Lotos, tycoon on the market).
  1. Sławomir Smołokowski (4 500 mln PLN) – Musician, shareholder of Mercuria Energy Group (intermediary in the sale of oil for Orlen and Lotos, tycoon on the market) together with Grzegorz Jankilewicz, He also comes from Ukraine.
  1. Germán Efromovich (4 480 mln PLN) – Bolivian-born entrepreneur with multiple citizenship: Brazilian, Colombian, and, since 2012, Polish. He was born into a family of Polish Jews. He is an owner of Synergy Group, Pacific Rubiales and EISA.
  1. Dariusz Miłek (3 000 mln PLN) – Polish businessman, shareholder of CCC.
  1. Jerzy Starak (3 000 mln PLN) – Polish businessman, owner of Polpharma (the biggest Polish pharmaceutic company), Herbapol and Polfa Warszawa.
  1. Antoni Ptak (2 590 mln PLN) – Polish entrepreneur, owner of Europe’s largest retail and wholesale center – Shopping Centre ‘Ptak’ In Rzgow near Lodz. He also an owner of hotels In Florida.